Why do other languages have several different words for “to know”? What are the constraints of English?

Languages consists of different words for “to know”, because in order to understand which type of knowing a person means, it needs to be differentiated for the context it is used for. For english, we have ” to understand” or ” to know.” We can know that 2+2 = 4, but do we exactly understand why.

The Five Stages of Knowledge:

There are 5 Stages of Knowledge according to Mohammaed Youssef; introduction (1st stage), learning (2nd Stage), reaching knowledge at different degrees (3rd and 4th stage) and fully arrived with the knowledge (5th stage).

Examples of these stages:

Introduction: Seeing a new activity or sport.

Learning: What the activity or sport is about.

First Degree of Reaching Knowledge: Beginning to interact with the activity or sport.

Second Degree of Reaching Knowledge: Practicing the activity or sport.

Fully Arrived with Knowledge: Having the ability to do the activity or sport on a certain basis; being able to fully understand and do the activity or sport.

The last stage is when the sport or activity has been played for a while, where it reaches the comfort stage when playing or doing the activity or sport.

Types of Knowledge:

Experiential Knowledge: This is received from direct experience to one’s self

Procedural Knowledge: Knowing and understanding how

Knowledge Claim: Knowing that or plain facts

My Experiential Knowledge List:

Developing a daily schedule- having a routine

Social Interaction- talking to adults vs. friends. vs. strangers

When to be polite

Procedural Knowledge List:




Knowledge Claim:

2+2 = 4


TOK= Theory of Knowledge

What type is the easiest to learn? What type tends to stick the longest?

I feel that the easiest to learn is knowledge claims, but only for a certain extent of time. But, if wanted to remember for a long time, then the procedural type of knowledge would probably be best. This is because by doing an activity repetively, the human mind would be set to function a doing over and over again. Perhaps, once in a while the activity will be tiring and because we all make mistakes, a mistakes is possible to occur.

Ways of Knowing:

There are four different ways of knowing; sense perception, language, emotion and reasoning.

All of these ways of knowledge can be applied to the several types of knowledge in a way. Perhaps, some play more of an important role than others in different cases.

With sense perception, it allows us to take notice of things around us, allowing us to see, touch, hear, smell…

With emotions, we are able to understand how people feel by using sense perception that is also done through social interaction, leading to experiential knowledge.

With walking or running, we feel the movements our body makes (sense perception), the pace is goes, and walking is procedural knowledge, since it is “doing.” People need to gauge themselves into an activity to experience, understand and be informed of occurances around them.

Types of Memory:

Procedural memory- How to do Things with step-by-step procedures involved. ex1). Tying shoes ex2). Flying an airplane.

Working memory- Short term memory that holds only pieces of information applied to different tasks.

Long-term memory- Lasting storage of information with the ability to recall things.

Declarative memory- A type of long term memory for facts, knowledge and a lot of personal experiences.

Non-declarative- Procedural Memories.

Episodic memory- A type of declarative memory referring to autobiographical events, almost like facts.

Tests for Truth:

Like mathmagicians or scientists, evidence must be provided to prove a fact. Most likely, we use the coherence test where we ask the question ” does it agree with other claims I believe?”. Humans sometimes have the tendency to be unsure, so we check with others and compare answers. Another test is the pragmatic test which is “does it work in practice?” and used in subjects like math when solving equations. In math, there are ways to check to see if solutions are correct.

Truth vs. Lies:

People lie for many reasons. We sometimes lie to be sincere, for the better or to cover up for wrong-doings. There is such a difference between lying out of sincerenss vs. correctness.  Sometimes we make false statments that is different from lies.

The difference between sincerity and correctness is that a sincere statement can be completely factually wrong, as long as the person who is making the statement wholeheartedly believes it to be true. Similarly, a false statement and a lie differ. A false statement can be made with the intention of being sincere.

Justification Types:

We check answers by plugging them back into equations for math where answers are more straightforward compared to english, where answers can vary often. For homework and tests, we most often use our intuition as a guide.

Emotion might affect an artist to pursuade him or her to be bias as with art, artists may tend to create at their own likings.

Intuition might affect a scientist, because scientists need to go through all the reasonings to ensure that there topic does not hold anything false, instead of going the easy way out and just going by an assumption. There could possibly be an error, as humans are not 100% perfect.

Evaluating Knowledge Claims

Evaluating Math Class:

Source: My source is Mrs. Ballew and a textbook.

Statements: Math has various possibilities to be solved, but most math can be checked by plugging the solution back into the equation.

Self: Just like the majority of the class, I am inclined to trust the teachers to educate me properly.


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